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Volvariella taylorii

[ Basidiomycota > Agaricales > Pluteaceae > Volvariella . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

The illustrated collections are a plausible match for Volvariella taylorii, a European species recorded in North America by several Volvariella authors (Shaffer 1957; Monoson, Methven & Sundberg, 1993). Distinguishing features include the realtively small size, the grayish to brown cap; the gray volva; the terrestrial habitat; and the fairly small spores (see measurements below). The illustrated and described collections, from Pennsylvania and Illinois, were all vernal, appearing during morel season in the spring; additionally the collections described here featured a strong raphanoid (radish-like) odor. Vernal appearance and raphanoid odor are not described for Volvariella taylorii by European or North American authors, suggesting the possibility that the mushroom described here may represent an undescribed, taylorii-like species.

Boekhout (1986, 1990) treated Volvariella taylorii as a variety of Volvariella pusilla since it differed only in its darker colors and slightly larger size. However, the two taxa are clearly separated at the species level in a more recent DNA study (Justo et al. 2011b).

"Volvariella taylori" (with one I) is an alternate spelling.

Thanks to Scott Hamilton for collecting, documenting, and preserving specimens of Volvariella taylorii for study; his collection is deposited in The Herbarium of Michael Kuo.

Description:

Ecology: Saprobic; growing alone or gregariously on the ground in hardwood forests, often near woody debris; spring (see comments above); North American distribution uncertain. The illustrated and described collections are from Illinois and Pennsylvania

Cap: 3–6 cm across; convex, becoming broadly convex; dry; finely radially hairy; grayish brown to brownish gray; the margin not lined, but sometimes splitting with age.

Gills: Free from the stem; close or crowded; short-gills frequent; whitish when young, becoming pink to brownish pink with maturity.

Stem: 3.5–5.5 cm long; 7–13 mm thick; tapering gradually to apex; with a slightly swollen base or a small basal bulb; dry; very finely hairy near the apex but bald elsewhere; whitish, discoloring brownish; the base encased in a thick, whitish to gray or brownish, sack-like volva.

Flesh: White; unchanging when sliced.

Odor and Taste: Radishlike.

Chemical Reactions: KOH negative on cap surface.

Spore Print: Brownish pink.

Microscopic Features: Spores 6–8 x 4–5 µm; ellipsoid; smooth; thick-walled; yellowish to hyaline in KOH; inamyloid. Basidia 4-spored. Cheilo- and pleurocystidia when present 30–50 x 7.5–12.5 µm; lageniform; thin-walled; smooth; hyaline in KOH. Pileipellis a cutis with areas of upright hyphal ends; elements 5–15 µm wide, smooth or a little encrusted, septate, hyaline to brownish in KOH; terminal cells cylindric with rounded apices. Clamp connections not found.


REFERENCES: (Berkeley & Broome, 1854) Singer, 1951. (Saccardo, 1887; Shaffer, 1957; Smith, Smith & Weber, 1979; Boekhout, 1990; Monoson, Methven & Sundberg, 1993; Seok et al., 2002; Justo & Castro, 2010; Justo et al., 2011b.) Herb. Kuo 04140401, 04280802, 04171302.


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Volvariella taylorii

Volvariella taylorii

Volvariella taylorii

Volvariella taylorii

Volvariella taylorii

Volvariella taylorii
Spore print

Volvariella taylorii
Spores



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Kuo, M. (2018, December). Volvariella taylorii. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/volvariella_taylorii.html