Key to 20+ Volvariella Species in North America
|1.||Growing on other mushrooms (species of Clitocybe).|
|1.||Not growing on other mushrooms.|
|2.||Growing directly from wood (stumps, logs, trees).|
|2.||Growing terrestrially, or in compost or woodchips.|
|3.||Mature cap less than 4 cm wide.|
|3.||Mature cap 4 cm wide or wider.|
|4.||Cap velvety, brownish black over the center with radial brownish black fibers elsewhere; margin not lined; stem light gray; recorded from Florida (by a more trustable source than the state's elections board).|
|4.||Cap not velvety, gray to bluish gray with dark radial fibers; margin lined; stem white; recorded from North Carolina. (Imperfectly described species; type collection lost.)|
|5.||Cap surface bald (not granular, silky, or hairy) and slimy; margin lined; recorded from New York.|
|5.||Cap surface granular, silky, or hairy, dry; margin lined or not; variously distributed.|
|6.||Margin lined; cap surface "granular"; recorded from the Caribbean.|
|6.||Margin not lined; cap surface silky or hairy; variously distributed.|
|7.||Cap more highly colored; cystidia variously sized.|
|8.||Cap sooty to dark coffee-colored; cystidia to 80 µ long; recorded from Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.|
|8.||Not as above. Various wood-loving Volvariellas with non-white caps may key out here. Whether or not these mushrooms represent undescribed species or mere color forms of Volvariella bombycina remains to be determined. Contributor Richard Nadon found what I have labeled Volvariella sp. 01 in Quebec; I have found brownish specimens that otherwise equaled Volvariella bombycina in Illinois.|
|9.||Mature cap 5 cm wide or wider.|
|9.||Mature cap less than 5 cm wide.|
|10.||Cap white or nearly so, bald.|
|10.||Cap not whitish, bald or with fibers or scales.|
|11.||Stem with grooves; cap dry, pure white; margin never lined; spores 16-23 µ long; recorded from Florida.|
|11.||Stem without grooves; cap sticky to slimy when fresh, white but sometimes grayish over the center; margin sometimes finely lined; spores 11-21 µ long; widely distributed.|
|12.||Cap drab to grayish or brownish.|
|13.||Stem often with a "ring" (resulting from the collapsing of the volva); cap drab with brownish scales; spores 9-12 µ long; reported from Washington D.C. and possibly Michigan. (Imperfectly described species; type collection lost.)|
|14.||Cap 5-10 cm across; stem up to 2 cm wide; spores 7-10.5 µ long; "widely distributed" but typically reported from woodchips, greenhouses, botanical gardens, compost piles, and so on.|
|14.||Cap 2-6 cm across; stem up to 1 cm wide; spores 5.5-9 µ long; widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|15.||Cap smooth; odor not distinctive; spores 15-20 µ long; recorded from Alabama.|
|15.||Cap finely hairy; odor strong and unpleasant; spores 6-8.5 µ long; recorded from Cuba.|
|16.||Stem often with a "ring" (resulting from the collapsing of the volva); cap drab with brownish scales; spores 9-12 µ long; reported from Washington D.C. and possibly Michigan. (Imperfectly described species; type collection lost.)|
|17.||Volva white and conspicuously hairy; cap grayish, 2.5-3.5 cm across, finely hairy; spores 6-7 µ long; found east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|17.||Not completely as above.|
|18.||Center area of cap white (the rest of the cap variously colored).|
|18.||Center of cap not white.|
|19.||Cap completely smooth; spores 11-15.5 µ long; recorded from Cuba.|
|19.||Cap with pressed-down fibers or finely hairy; spores 9 µ long or shorter; variously distributed.|
|20.||Cap .5-1.5 cm across when mature; recorded from Michigan.|
|20.||Cap larger than above when mature; variously distributed.|
|21.||Cap .5-3 cm across when mature; margin lined at maturity; stem smooth; found east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|21.||Cap 2-5 cm across when mature; margin not lined; stem densely but finely hairy; widely distributed in North America.|
|22.||Cap grayish to pinkish gray or brownish gray, evenly colored (not markedly darker over the center portion); margin not lined; found east of the Rocky Mountains.|
|22.||Cap whitish overall with a differently colored center, or grayish with a blackish center; margin lined or not; variously distributed.|
|23.||Cap whitish overall with a pinkish center; margin not lined; recorded from the Pacific Northwest.|
|24.||Cap whitish overall with a black center; margin not lined; spores 7-8.5 µ long; recorded from Florida.|
|24.||Cap grayish overall with a blackish center; margin or nearly the entire cap deeply grooved, reminiscent of small Coprinus species; spores 6-7 µ long; recorded from Michigan.|
Bateman, G. L. & S. Nabb (2000). Volvariella speciosa in arable fields. Mycologist 14: 16.
Boekhout, T. & M. Enderle (1996). Typification of Volvariella gloiocephala (DC.:Fr.) Boekhout & Enderle. Persoonia 16: 249-251.
Chiu, S. W. & Moore, D. (1990). Development of the basidiome of Volvariella bombycina. Mycological Research 94: 327-337.
Chiu, S. W. & Moore, D. (1993). Cell form, function and lineage in the hymenia of Coprinus cinereus and Volvariella bombycina. Mycological Research 97: 221-226.
Desjardin, D. E. & D. E. Hemmes (2001). Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands--7. Notes on Volvariella, Mycena sect. Radiatae, Physalacria, Porpoloma and Stropharia. Harvard Papers in Botany 6: 85-103.
Kauffman, C.H. (1918). The gilled mushrooms (Agaricaceae) of Michigan and the Great Lakes region, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover. 924 pp. (1971 Reprint.)
Monoson, H. L., A. S. Methven & W. J. Sundberg (1993). Illinois species of Volvariella (Basidiomycetes, Agaricales, Pluteaceae). Mycotaxon 49: 269-278.
Salmones, D., D. Martinez-Carrera & G. Guzman (1988). Esudio comparativo sobre el cultivo de Volvariella bakeri y Volvariella bombycina en diferentes desechos agroindustriales. Biotica 13: 7-16.
Shaffer, R. L. (1957). Volvariella in North America. Mycologia 49: 545-579.
Shaffer, R. L. (1962). Synonyms, new combinations, and new species in Volvariella (Agaricales). Mycologia 54: 563-572.
Seok, S. J., Y. S. Kim, H. Y. Weon, K. H. Lee, K. M. Park, K. H. Min & K. H. Yoo (2002). Taxonomic study on Volvariella in Korea. Mycobiology 30: 183-192.
Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1979). How to know the gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 334 pp.
Vázquez, L. S., L. Guzmán-Dávalos & G. Guzmán (1989). Contribucion al conocimiento de las especies del genero Volvariella en Jalisco. Revista Mexicana de Micologia 5: 169-179.
Weber, R. & Webster, J. (1996). Volvariella surrecta: An uncommon mycoparasite. Mycologist 10: 160.
Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2011, November). The genus Volvariella. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/volvariella.html