by Michael Kuo

Each species page at this site includes a references paragraph in small font below the mushroom's description. Here is an example from the page for Artomyces pyxidatus:

    REFERENCES: (Persoon, 1794) Jülich, 1982. (Fries, 1821; Saccardo, 1888; Coker, 1923; Corner, 1950; Dodd, 1972; Smith, Smith & Weber, 1981; Arora, 1986; States, 1990; Phillips, 1991/2005; Lincoff, 1992; Metzler & Metzler, 1992; Horn, Kay & Abel, 1993; Evenson, 1997; Barron, 1999; Lickey, Hughes & Petersen, 2002; Roody, 2003; McNeil, 2006; Miller & Miller, 2006; Trudell & Ammirati, 2009; Kuo & Methven, 2010; Kuo & Methven, 2014; Evenson, 2015; Cripps, Evenson & Kuo, 2016.) Herb. Kuo 05210404, 05060604, 07030701.

Species authors ("authorities") are given first. The author of a species is the mycologist who gave the species its currently used name--in this case Jülich, who named Artomyces pyxidatus in 1982. If Jülich had been the first to name the mushroom, there would be no parenthetical entry before "Jülich, 1982." However, Jülich was not the first scientist to name the mushroom; he is the person who decided it belonged in the genus Artomyces. It was Persoon who first named it, in 1794; his original name (called the "basionym" by mycologists) was Clavaria pyxidata. Thus the official name of the mushroom, for mycologists, is "Artomyces pyxidatus (Pers.) Jülich," giving credit to the scientist who originated the name (Pers. for Persoon) and the scientist who gave the mushroom its current genus. At MushroomExpert.Com I include full names in species author citations, rather than abbreviations, and I include the dates of publications.

Works cited or studied, and popular sources containing descriptions of the mushroom. The long parenthetical entry following the species author represents a list of sources I have used while writing the page, as well as readily available field guides that describe and illustrate the mushroom. If a source is not listed below (scroll down to "Field Guides," etc.), its full citation can be found in one of two places: 1) on the genus page for the mushroom or 2) in the Complete References List for the site.

Collections of the mushroom in the Herbarium of Michael Kuo are cited last in the references paragraph. These are collections I have made, studied, and preserved—or they are collections made by others and sent to me for study. My collection numbers, if anyone cares, represent the date of the collection with the first six digits; the last two digits refer to the collection number on that date. Thus Artomyces pyxidatus was the fourth mushroom I collected on May 21, 2004: 05210404. Collections I have studied from other herbaria are also cited here.

Complete References List

The complete list of sources I have used in order to write pages at MushroomExpert.Com is way too long to maintain as a Web page. However, the list is available as a PDF file, linked below.

Field Guides / General Interest / Beginning Mushroom Identification Sources

Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 959 pp.

Baroni, T. J. (2017). Mushrooms of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 600 pp.

Barron, G. (1999). Mushrooms of northeast North America. Canada: Lone Pine. 336 pp.

Bessette, A. E., O. K. Miller, A. R. Bessette & H. H. Miller (1995). Mushrooms of North America in color: A field guide companion to seldom-illustrated fungi. China: Syracuse UP. 172 pp.

Bessette, A. E., Roody, W. C. & Bessette, A. R. (2000). North American boletes: A color guide to the fleshy pored mushrooms. China: Syracuse UP. 399 pp.

Bessette, A. E., W. C. Roody & A. R. Bessette (2016). Boletes of eastern North America. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. 469 pp.

Beug, M. W., A. E. Bessette & A. R. Bessette (2014). Ascomycete fungi of North America: a mushroom reference guide. Austin: University of Texas Press. 488 pp.

Binion, D. E., H. H. Burdsall, Jr., S. L. Stephenson, O. K. Miller, Jr., W. C. Roody & L. N. Vasilyeva (2008). Macrofungi associated with oaks of eastern North America. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press. 467 pp.

Cripps, C. L., V. S. Evenson & M. Kuo (2016). The essential guide to Rocky Mountain mushrooms by habitat. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 260 pp.

Desjardin, D. E., M. G. Wood & F. A. Stevens (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Portland: Timber Press. 559 pp.

Elliott, T. E. & S. L. Stephenson (2018). Mushrooms of the southeast. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 408 pp.

Evenson, V. S. & Denver Botanic Gardens (2015). Mushrooms of the Rocky Mountain region: Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming. Portland: Timber Press. 298 pp.

Gilbertson, R. L. & Ryvarden, L. (1986). North American polypores Vol. I. Oslo: Fungiflora. 433 pp.

Gilbertson, R. L. & Ryvarden, L. (1987). North American polypores Vol. II. Oslo: Fungiflora. 452 pp.

Horn, B., Kay, R., & Abel, D. (1993). A guide to Kansas mushrooms. Kansas University Press. 297 pp.

Jenkins, D. T. (1986). Amanita of North America. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 198 pp.

Kauffman, C.H. (1918). The gilled mushrooms (Agaricaceae) of Michigan and the Great Lakes region, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover. 924 pp. (1971 Reprint.)

Kerrigan, R. W. (2016). Agaricus of North America. Memoirs of the New York Botanical garden, Volume 114. New York: New York Botanical Garden Press. 573 pp.

Kibby, G. & Fatto, R. (1990). Keys to the species of Russula in northeastern North America. Somerville, NJ: Kibby-Fatto Enterprises. 70 pp.

Knudsen, H. & J. Vesterholt, eds. (2018). Funga Nordica: Agaricoid, boletoid, clavarioid, cyphelloid, and gastroid genera. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. 1083 pp.

Kuo, M. (2005). Morels. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 205 pp.

Kuo, M. (2007). 100 Edible Mushrooms. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 329 pp.

Kuo, M. & A. Methven (2010). 100 Cool Mushrooms. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 210 pp.

Kuo, M. & A. S. Methven (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 427 pp.

Læssøe, T. L. & J. H. Petersen (2019). Fungi of Temperature Europe (in 2 volumes). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1715 pp.

Largent, D. L. (1973). How to identify mushrooms to genus I: Macroscopic features. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 86 pp.

Largent, D. L. & Thiers, H. D. (1973). How to identify mushrooms to genus II: Field identification of genera. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 32 pp.

Largent, D. L., Johnson, D. & Watling, R. (1973). How to identify mushrooms to genus III: Microscopic features. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 148 pp.

Largent, D. L. & Baroni, T. J. (1988). How to identify mushrooms to genus VI: Modern genera. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 277 pp.

Leacock, P. R. (continuously updated). MycoGuide: Mushrooms of the Midwest and America. Retrieved 17 December 2018 from:

Lincoff, G. H. (1992). The Audubon Society field guide to North American mushrooms. New York: Knopf. 926 pp.

Lockwood, T. F. (2002). Treasures from the kingdom of fungi. Korea: Taylor Lockwood. 127 pp.

MacKinnon, A. & K. Luther (2021). Mushrooms of British Columbia. Victoria, BC: Royal British Columbia Museum. 498 pp.

McKnight, K. B., J. R. Rohrer, K. McKnight Ward & K. H. McKnight (2021). Peterson Field Guide to Mushrooms of North America. Second Edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 412 pp.

McNeil, R. (2006). Le grand livre des champignons du Quebec et de l’est du Canada. Waterloo: Editions Michel Quintin. 575 pp.

Metzler, S. & Metzler, V. (1992). Texas mushrooms. Japan: University of Texas Press. 350 pp.

Miller, O. K. Jr. & Miller, H. H. (2006). North American Mushrooms: A Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, CT: FalconGuide. 584 pp.

Money, N. P. (2002). Mr. Bloomfield's orchard: The mysterious world of mushrooms, molds, and mycologists. New York: Oxford University Press. 208 pp.

Money, N. P. (2004). Carpet monsters and killer spores: A natural history of toxic mold. New York: Oxford University Press. 178 pp.

Money, N. P. (2005). Why picking wild mushrooms may be bad behaviour. Mycological Research 109: 131–135.

Money, N. P. (2016). Are mushrooms medicinal? Fungal Biology 120: 449–453.

Moser, M. (1983). Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales). Ed. Kibby, G. Transl. Plant, S. London: Roger Phillips. 535 pp.

Pacific Northwest Key Council (2006). Keys to mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved 17 December, 2018 from the Pacific Northwest Key Council Web site:

Phillips, R. (1981). Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain & Europe. London: Pan Books.

Phillips, R. (1991). Mushrooms of North America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 319 pp.

Preston, R. J. (1989). North American trees exclusive of Mexico and tropical Florida. Ames, IA: Iowa University Press. 407 pp.

Roody, W. C. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the central Appalachians. Korea: University of Kentucky Press. 520 pp.

Siegel, N. & C. Schwarz (2016). Mushrooms of the redwood coast: a comprehensive guide to the fungi of coastal northern California. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. 602 pp.

Smith, A. H. (1949). Mushrooms in their natural habitat. New York: Hafner Press. 626 pp.

Smith, A. H. (1975). The mushroom hunter's field guide. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 264 pp.

Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1979). How to know the gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 334 pp. (Click here to see corrections to this text.)

Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1981). How to know the non-gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 324 pp.

Smith, A. H. & Thiers, H. D. (1971). The boletes of Michigan. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 428 pp.

States, J. S. (1990). Mushrooms and truffles of the Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 234 pp.

Stuntz, D. E. How to identify mushrooms to genus IV: Keys to families and genera. Eureka, California: Mad River Press. 94 pp. (Click here to see corrections to this text.)

Sturgeon, W. E. (2018). Appalachian mushrooms: a field guide. Athens: Ohio University Press.471 pp.

Trappe, M., F. Evans & J. Trappe (2007). Field Guide to North American Truffles: Hunting, Identifying, and Enjoying the World’s Most Prized Fungi. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. 136 pp.

Trudell, S. & J. Ammirati (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Portland: Timber Press. 349 pp.

Tulloss, R. E. (continuously updated). Studies in Amanitaceae. Retrieved 7 December, 2017 from

Volk, T. (2006). Tom Volk's Fungi. Retrieved 17 December, 2018 from

Weber, N. S. (1995). A morel hunter's companion: A guide to true and false morels. Michigan: Thunder Bay Press. 209 pp.

Weber, N. S. & Smith, A. H. (1985). A field guide to southern mushrooms. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 280 pp.

Woehrel, M. L. & W. H. Light (2017). Mushrooms of the Georgia piedmont and southern Appalachians: a reference. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. 647 pp.

Wood, M. & Stevens, F. (continuously updated). The fungi of California. Retrieved 17 September, 2020 from the MycoWeb Web site:

This site contains no information about the edibility or toxicity of mushrooms.

Cite this page as:

Kuo, M. (2020, September). References. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site:

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