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Omphalinoid Mushrooms

[ Basidiomycetes . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

"Omphalinoid" mushrooms form a fairly distinctive group among the gilled mushrooms; they are small species with true gills that run down the stem, thin stems, and caps that are funnel-shaped or depressed by maturity ( means "belly button" in Greek). Most have pale spore prints. Some species are brightly colored (yellow and orange), while others are brownish or darker. Many omphalinoid mushrooms grow in moss, or are associated with lichens--but others are found on wood or on the ground. A few small species of chanterelles and trumpets can look similar to omphalinoid mushrooms, but have false gills rather than true gills.

The genus names involved with omphalinoid mushrooms change every second Tuesday, give or take, but Omphalina was obviously once one of the forerunners. Other genera include Arrhenia, Gerronema, Xeromphalina, Chrysomphalina, and Rickenella--and many species of Clitocybe are omphalinoid. I would share with you the various features that separate these genera, but they are often obscure (for example, the "sarcodimitic tissues" of Gerronema) and, more importantly, likely to change before you read this. At the moment, Lichenomphalina and Ampulloclitocybe are under consideration, among other names, as DNA studies attempt to sort this mess out (so far these studies have only confused things further by throwing the waxy caps into the genetic mix--see the Hygrophoroid/Omphalinoid Group--but we can always hope).


Omphalinoid Mushroom Pages:

Chrysomphalina chrysophylla
Clitocybula abundans
Clitocybula lacerata
Gerronema strombodes
Omphalina epichysium
Rickenella fibula
Xeromphalina campanella
Xeromphalina cauticinalis
Xeromphalina kauffmanii
Xeromphalina tenuipes

 

Omphalina epichysium

Omphalina sp.

Gerronema strombodes


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References

Bigelow, H. E. (1970). Omphalina in North America. Mycologia 62: 1-32.

Bigelow, H. E. (1982). North American species of Clitocybe. Part I. Germany: Cramer. 280 pp.

Bigelow, H. E. (1985). North American species of Clitocybe. Part II. Germany: Cramer. 191 pp.

Kauffman, C.H. (1918). The gilled mushrooms (Agaricaceae) of Michigan and the Great Lakes region, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover. 924 pp. (1971 Reprint.)

Lange, M. (1981). Typification and delimitation of Omphalina Quel. Nordic Journal of Botany 1: 691-696.

Lutzoni, F. M. (1997). Phylogeny of lichen- and non-lichen-forming omphalinoid mushrooms and the utility of testing for combinability among multiple data sets. Systematic Botany 46: 373-406.

Miller, O. K. Jr. (1968). A revision of the genus Xeromphalina. Mycologia 60: 156-188.

Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357-400

Moser, M. (1983). Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales). Ed. Kibby, G. Transl. Plant, S. London: Roger Phillips. 535 pp.

Norvell, L. L. et al. (1994). Omphalina sensu lato in North America 1-2. 1: Omphalina wynniae and the genus Chrysomphalina. 2: Omphalina sensu Bigelow. Mycotaxon 50: 379-407.

Redhead, S. A. & Weresub, L. K. (1978). On Omphalia and Omphalina. Mycologia 70: 556-568.

Redhead, S. A. (1986). Mycological observations 15-16: On Omphalia and Pleurotus. Mycologia 78: 522-528.

Redhead, S. A. et al. (1995). Omphalina sensu lato in North America 4: O. rosella. Mycologia 87: 880-885.

Redhead, S. A., J.-M. Moncalvo, R. Vilgalys & F. Lutzoni (2002). Phylogeny of agarics: Partial systematics solutions for bryophilous omphalinoid agarics outside of the Agaricales (Euagarics). Mycotaxon 82: 151-168.

Redhead, S. A. et al. (2002). Phylogeny of Agarics: Partial systematics solutions for core omphalinoid genera in the Agaricales (Euagarics). Mycotaxon 83: 19-57.

Singer, R. (1964). Die gattung Gerronema. Nova Hedwigia 7: 53-92.

Smith, A. H., Smith, H. V. & Weber, N. S. (1979). How to know the gilled mushrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 334 pp.



Cite this page as:

Kuo, M. (2008, November). Omphalinoid mushrooms. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/omphalinoid.html