Key to 10 Gomphidius Species in North America
|1.||With a slime veil covering the young gills, leaving thick slime on the stem as the cap expands.|
|1.||Without a slime veil; stem not slimy.|
|2.||Mature stem bright yellow at the base or nearly overall.|
|3.||Typically growing in clusters, often with stem bases fused; stem base often rooting; spores 10–14 µm long; known only from western North America.|
|3.||Not usually growing in clusters with stem bases fused; stem base not usually rooting; spores longer than 14 µm; variously distributed.|
|4.||Cap more or less brown or dark purplish gray, blackening with age; stem 1–2 cm wide or more.|
|5.||Cap up to 20 cm across; growing at high elevations.|
|6.||Young cap whitish to yellowish; stem blackening on handling; associated with eastern white pine in eastern North America.|
|6.||Young cap more highly colored; stem not blackening; mycorrhizal associations and distributions varying.|
|7.||Spores shorter than 14 µm; known from Idaho.|
|7.||Spores longer than 14 µm; distribution varying.|
|8.||Spores shorter than 23 µm; lower stem covered with smoky yellow to purplish black fibers.|
|8.||Many spores longer than 23 µm; lower stem not as above.|
|9.||Spores 18–29 µm long; found in northern conifer bogs and with red spruce in the Appalachians.|
|9.||Spores 18–40 µm long; known from spruce-pine woods in Fresno County, California.|
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Miller, O. K. Jr. et al. (2002). Two new species of Gomphidius from the western United States and eastern Siberia. Mycologia 94: 1044–1050.
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Singer, R. (1949). The genus Gomphidius Fries in North America. Mycologia 41: 462–489.
Thiers, H. D. (1985). The Agaricales of California. 3. Gomphidiaceae. Eureka, CA: Mad River Press. 20 pp.
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Kuo, M. (2014, February). The genus Gomphidius. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/gomphidius.html