Key to Agrocybe and Cyclocybe in North America
En Français (French translation by Roland Labbé).
|1.||Growing in clusters on wood (often the wood of willows or poplars); cap medium sized; stem with a sturdy ring; known from (and cultivated commercially in) Europe but also appearing in North America in southern hardwood forests or under baldcypress.|
|1.||Not completely as above.|
|3.||Cap dark brown in all stages of development; gills running down the stem.|
|3.||Cap paler; gills attached to the stem or pulling away from it, but not running down it.|
|5.||Stem only a few mm thick; cap small (1-3 cm), yellowish brown or paler; veil evidence very quickly disappearing; cap surface red or pinkish with KOH; spores 9-13 µ long.|
|5.||Stem usually thicker and cap usually bigger than above; veil evidence fairly persistent on cap margin and/or stem; cap surface not red or pinkish with KOH; spores variously sized.|
|6.||Cap white or very pale tan; most spores 10-14 µ long; clearly decomposing grass litter.|
|6.||Cap usually darker than above; most spores 8-11 µ long; possibly decomposing buried wood (trees, woodchips, roots of former trees, etc. in the vicinity).|
|7.||Mushroom identifier is willing to accept that recent investigations suggest the futility of determining subsequent Agrocybe species on the basis of morphology (physical features, assessed with and without a microscope).|
|7.||Mushroom identifier likes old-school morphology, has a microscope, and doesn't care that the subsequent species, as currently defined, are probably invalid.|
|8.||Growing in western North American forests in spring (account for elevation) under conifers or aspen; decomposing fragmented wood litter.|
|9.||Growing in eastern North American hardwood forests (often with maples present); decomposing fragmented wood litter or growing from logs.|
|10.||Growing in woodchips in urban settings across North America, or in disturbed ground (well worn paths, etc.) in spring.|
|11.||Stem 2-4 mm thick; growing in marshes and bogs; ring thin but persistent; spores 9-11 µ long; cystidia broadly fusoid-ventricose.|
|11.||Stem thicker than above; habitat variable but not usually in marshes or bogs; ring persistent or not; microscopic characters variable.|
|12.||Cap moist, dark yellowish brown when young, often wrinkled or veined near the center; ring persistent; cystidia clavate-mucronate, occasionally with fingerlike projections.|
|12.||Cap dry, paler than above when young, the center not wrinkled or veined; ring sometimes collapsing or disappearing; cystidia utriform, without projections.|
|13.||Growing in clusters on the dead wood of hardwoods; young cap dark brown.|
|13.||Growing elsewhere; young cap not dark brown.|
|14.||Taste bitter; growing on dung or in greenhouses.|
|14.||Taste mild or mealy; growing elsewhere. Note: Some of the subsequent species are morphological species unsupported by substantial ecological differences, and might easily collapse with mating and/or DNA studies.|
|15.||Cap 5-10 cm wide; stem .5-1 cm thick; found east of the Great Plains.|
|15.||Cap and stem smaller than above; variously distributed.|
|16.||Stem with a long "root" or rhizomorphs attached to a fleshy underground mass (a sclerotium); gills distantly spaced; spores 8-10 x 4-5 µ; found in gardens.|
|16.||Not completely as above.|
|17.||Cap pale, conspicuously wrinkled and pitted; found in lawns and grassy areas in subtropical and tropical areas; spores 15-17 x 7.5-9 µ.|
|17.||Not completely as above.|
Flynn, T. & Miller, O. K. Jr. (1990). Biosystematics of Agrocybe molesta and sibling species allied to Agrocybe praecox in North America and Europe. Mycological Research 94: 1103–1110.
González, P. & LaBarere, J. (1998). Sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 domains reveal highly species-specific variations within the genus Agrocybe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64: 4149–4160.
Nauta, M. M. (2003). A new Agrocybe on woodchips in northwestern Europe. Persoonia 18: 271–274.
Nauta, M. M. (2004). Notulae ad floram agaricinam Neerlandicam--XLIII. Notes on Agrocybe. Persoonia 18: 429–433.
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Vizzini, A., C. Angelini & E. Ercole (2014). Le sezioni Velatae e Aporus di Agrocybe sottogenere Aporus: rivalutazione del genere Cyclocybe Velen. ed una nuova specie. Bollettino della Associazione Micologica ed Ecologica Romana 92: 21–38.
Watling, R. (1982). British Fungus Flora, Agarics and Boleti, 3: Bolbitiaceae: Agrocybe, Bolbitius & Conocybe. Edinburgh: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 139 pp.
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Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2006, September). The genus Agrocybe. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/agrocybe.html