Key to 20 Laccaria Species in North America
|2.||Associated with live oak (Quercus virginiana) on the Gulf Coast; spores under 10 µ long.|
|2.||Not growing with live oak on the Gulf Coast; spores much longer than 10 µ.|
|3.||Known from eastern North America and the Great Lakes region; basal mycelium purplish; spores roughened but without clearly defined spines.|
|4.||Gills clearly purple (like, purple purple) when fresh, and usually remaining so as the mushroom matures.|
|4.||Gills variously colored (vinaceous, flesh-colored, lilac, pinkish, etc.) but not clearly purple--or if pale purplish when young, soon fading to pinkish, flesh color, etc.|
|5.||Growing east of the Rocky Mountains, under hardwoods or conifers.|
|6.||Mature cap over 4 cm across, purplish when young but soon buff, whitish, or pale brownish; stem as wide as 2-3 cm when mature.|
|6.||Mature cap smaller than 4 cm across, variously colored; stem 1 cm wide or less when mature.|
|7.||Associated with live oak (Quercus virginiana) on the Gulf Coast; cap purplish becoming brownish.|
|8.||Associated with eucalyptus; cap 1-3.5 cm across, rusty reddish brown, fading to buff, faintly to moderately lined; stem 2-6 cm long; basidia 2-spored.|
|8.||Not completely as above.|
|9.||Mature cap under 3 cm across, strongly lined; stem less than 4 mm thick.|
|9.||Mature cap usually larger than above, lined or not; stem usually thicker than above.|
|10.||Stem 2-7 cm long, reddish brown, contrasting with paler overall color of mature cap.|
|10.||Stem shorter than above, colored more or less like the cap.|
|11.||Growing under conifers, birches, or willows in arctic, boreal, or montane (near the tree line) areas.|
|13.||Spores mostly elliptical, 8-10 x 7-8.5 µ, with spines about 1 µ long.|
|13.||Spores mostly subglobose, 9-10 x 8.5-9 µ, with spines about 2 µ long.|
|14.||Young cap with a wine-colored tinge that soon fades to reddish brown or orangish brown; basidia 2-spored; spores 10-15 µ long.|
|14.||Young cap reddish brown or orangish brown, without a wine-colored tinge; basidia 4-spored; spores 8-9 µ long.|
|15.||Spores with spines about 1 µ wide at the base; cap usually not strongly lined.|
|15.||Spores with spines featuring wide (> 1 µ) bases; cap often strongly lined.|
|16.||Growing under hardwoods with no conifers nearby; not growing in sphagnum.|
|16.||Growing under conifers, or growing in sphagnum.|
|17.||Basal mycelium of fresh, young specimens lilac to purplish--though possibly soon fading to whitish.|
|17.||Basal mycelium white in all stages of development.|
|18.||Found under long-leaf pine (Pinus palustris) along the Gulf Coast; cap sometimes with purplish tones; spores elliptical, with spines under 1 µ long.|
|18.||Not completely as above.|
|19.||Cap and stem conspicuously scaly; cheilocystidia always absent.|
|19.||Cap and stem usually smooth, hairy, or finely scaly--but not conspicuously scaly on a regular basis; cheilocystidia usually present.|
|20.||Cap pinkish to flesh-colored; cap surface with numerous but scattered perpendicular fascicles of interwoven hyphae.|
|20.||Cap brownish orange to reddish brown, fading to buff; cap surface, at least over the disc, densely packed with perpendicular fascicles of interwoven hyphae, appearing nearly as a trichoderm.|
|21.||Stem shorter than above; usually not growing in moss or sphagnum but, if so, with pines nearby.|
|22.||Spores round or nearly so, with spines 1-2 µ long; cap usually orangish brown, usually smooth or very finely hairy, usually under 5 cm across.|
|22.||Spores broadly elliptical, with spines .5-1 µ long; cap reddish brown to orangish brown, finely hairy becoming finely scaly with maturity, 2-7 cm across.|
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Martin, F. et al. (2008). The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nature 452: 88-92.
Mueller, G. M. (1984). New North American species of Laccaria (Agaricales). Mycotaxon 20: 101-116.
Mueller, G. M. (1987). Designation of type collections for Laccaria proxima, L. tortilis, and L. trullissata. Mycotaxon 28: 303-311.
Mueller, G. M. (1991). Laccaria longipes, a new North American species of the Laccaria laccata complex. Mycotaxon 40: 145-150.
Mueller, G. M. (1991). Laccaria laccata complex in North America and Sweden: Intercollection pairing and morphometric analyses. Mycologia 83: 578-594.
Mueller, G. M. (1997). The mushroom genus Laccaria in North America. Retrieved from the Field Museum of Natural History Web site: http://www.fmnh.org/research_collections/botany/botany_sites/fungi/index.html
Osmundson, T. W., C. L. Cripps & G. M. Mueller (2005). Morphological and molecular systematics of Rocky Mountain alpine Laccaria. Mycologia 97: 949-972.
Vellinga, E. (1995). Laccaria. In Bas, C., Th. W. Kuyper, M. E. Noordeloos & E. C. Vellinga. Flora Agaricina Neerlandica. Volume 3. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema. 96-103.
Cite this page as:
Kuo, M. (2010, December). The genus Laccaria. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/laccaria.html