Red spruce (Picea rubens)

[ Trees > Conifers . . . ]      Forest Type: New England Alpine, Boreal, Appalachian


Northeastern and Appalachian spruce tree with short, densely packed, 4-angled needles and small cones 1–1.5 inches long with smooth, rounded edges.

by Michael Kuo

Habitat: Mountaintops in New England and the Appalachians—but also in boreal bogs and swamps.

Stature: 50–70 feet tall and 1–2 feet wide; tall and narrow, with an open, pointed crown.

Needles: 1–2 cm long; densely packed on twigs; 4-sided; dark green.

Bark: Thin; grayish brown to reddish brown; smooth becoming scaly with age.

Cones: 2–4 cm long; cylindric to egg-shaped; scales with smooth, rounded edges; purplish brown while young and attached; brown to reddish brown after falling.

(References consulted)

Frequent Mushroom Associates:

Russula claroflava and many others.


Picea rubens

Picea rubens

Picea rubens

Picea rubens

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Kuo, M. (2019, November). Red spruce (Picea rubens). Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: