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Tricholoma fulvum

[ Basidiomycetes > Agaricales > Tricholomataceae > Tricholoma . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

This subtly beautiful Tricholoma features pale yellow gills that contrast nicely with its reddish brown cap. It is found under hardwoods (though the very similar, conifer-loving Tricholoma nictitans may be the same species; see the comments below) east of the Rocky Mountains. Other distinguishing features include the tendency of the gills to spot and discolor reddish brown, the mealy odor and taste, and microscopic features (see below).


Ecology: Mycorrhizal with various hardwoods; often found in moss; growing alone, scattered, or gregariously; summer and fall; east of the Rocky Mountains, especially in the Great Lakes region (a similar species in western North America is discussed below).

Cap: 3-10.5 cm; convex becoming broadly convex to nearly flat when mature; sticky when fresh, but soon dry; fairly smooth, or with appressed fibers over the center; yellow-brown to reddish brown; often paler toward the margin; sometimes becoming minutely pitted with age.

Gills: Attached to the stem by a notch; close; pale yellow; discoloring and spotting reddish brown.

Stem: 2-7 cm long; .5-1.5 cm thick; more or less equal, or somewhat swollen below; finely silky; at first creamy to yellowish; developing reddish brown to brown colors, except at the apex.

Flesh: Whitish to pale yellow; not changing on exposure.

Odor and Taste: Mealy.

Spore Print: White.

Chemical Reactions: KOH on cap surface reddish brown to brownish red.

Microscopic Features: Spores 5.5-7 x 4-6 µ; smooth; elliptical; inamyloid. Pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia absent. Pileipellis a cutis of cylindric elements 3-8 µ wide, embedded in a gelatinous matrix; hyaline in KOH. Clamp connections absent.

REFERENCES: (Bulliard, 1792) Saccardo, 1913. (Fries, 1821; Quélet, 1886; Saccardo, 1887; Smith, Smith & Weber, 1979; Ovrebo, 1980; Moser, 1983; Breitenbach & Kränzlin, 1991; Phillips, 1991/2005.) Herb. Kuo 07270706, 09240802.

Tricholoma flavobrunneum is a synonym, as is Tricholoma nictitans in the sense of many mycologists (see below).

Although very similar in morphology to the European species Tricholoma fulvum, our eastern North American version may be a different species--especially since the European species is strictly associated with birch.

Tricholoma nictitans, in the European sense, is a conifer-associated species that differs from Tricholoma fulvum primarily in the paler yellow color of the gills; many European mycologists treat these taxa as synonymous. However, Tricholoma nictitans in the sense of western North American Tricholoma expert Kris Shanks (1994) is a robust, long-stemmed species found under pines and other conifers. I suspect this is the species illustrated in Roger Phillips (1991/2005) and featured against the blue background at the link below (but the specimens photographed against a gray background represent European collections of Tricholoma fulvum).

Further Online Information:

Tricholoma fulvum at Roger's Mushrooms


Tricholoma fulvum

Tricholoma fulvum

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Kuo, M. (2008, December). Tricholoma fulvum. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: