Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

[ Trees > Hardwoods . . . ]

Forest Types: Oak-Hickory, Southern Hardwood, Southern Riverine


Small to medium-sized tree with bark distinctively warted or ridged with warts; leaves toothed, with uneven bases.

by Michael Kuo

Habitat: Adapted to various ecosystems, from oak-hickory forests to southern hardwood and riverine ecosystems.

Stature: To 100 feet high and 2 feet in diameter; with a spreading, rounded crown.

Leaves: Candle-flame-shaped; toothed; green above; slightly paler below; asymmetrical at the base, with the base of the short side curving gracefully to meet the base of the long side; 2.5-4 inches long; with 3 main veins originating near the base.

Bark: Brown to gray; smooth at first but soon distinctively warted, with the warts usually becoming arranged in longitudinal ridges as the tree matures.

Fruit: A dark purple berry about 1/3 inch in diameter.

(References consulted)

Frequent Mushroom Associates:

Perenniporia robiniophila and other hardwood decomposers.


Celtis occidentalis

Celtis occidentalis

Celtis occidentalis

Celtis occidentalis

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Kuo, M. (2007, May). Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis). Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: