The Hygrophoroid/Omphalinoid Group

[ Basidiomycetes > Agaricales . . . ]

by Michael Kuo

Moncalvo and others (2002; citation below) have compiled DNA evidence for 877 mushroom species, arriving at 117 clades of genetically related mushrooms. The clades containing most of the waxy caps and the omphalinoid mushrooms are represented below; I have conflated the branches of the Moncalvo et al. cladogram in order to paint with broad strokes. The five "groups" comprising these mushrooms are represented in boxes, and the various nested clades are represented within them.

The Reader's Digest condensed version is: The waxy caps and omphalinoid mushrooms are all mixed up, but there are recognizable clades within the broader mess that hold together fairly well and are not necessarily big surprises. While there is enough "bad news" in these findings to spread around for everyone, as far as traditional morphology-based taxonomy is concerned, there is also "good news"--for the late Lexemuel Hesler and Alexander Smith, whose subgenera Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus (which they subordinated to the genus Hygrophorus in 1963) are largely upheld as coherent groups; for Scott Redhead, who with others separated Chrysomphalina from Gerronema; and even for me, since the clades largely uphold differences in ecological roles, grouping together mushrooms that are mycorrhizal, saprobic, symbiotic with moss or lichens, and so on (regular readers are probably growing sick of my continual insistence on ecology).

 Unnamed Group

Camarophyllus pratensis
Cantharocybe gruberi
Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis


 Omphalina Group

Omphalina pyxidata
Omphalina rivulicola


Omphalina Clade

Clitocybe lateritia
Rimbachia bryophila
Clitocybe clavipes



 Unnamed Group

Neohygrophorus angelesianus
Pseudoomphalina felloides


Neohygrophoroid Clade

Cantharellula umbonata
Pseudoarmillariella ectypoides


Cantharelluloid Clade

 Arrhenia Group

Omphalina velutipes
Omphalina epichysium
Omphalina sphagnicola
Omphalina philonotis
Arrhenia lobata
Arrhenia auriscalpium
Omphalina obscurata
Omphalina griseopallidus


Arrhenia Clade

Omphalina luteovitellina
Omphalina velutina


Lichenomphalia Clade

Omphalina ericetorum
Gliophorus laeta



 Hygrophoraceae Group

Hygrophorus sordidus
Hygrophorus bakerensis


Hygrophorus Clade

Chrysomphalina chrysophylla
Chrysomphalina grossula


Chrysomphalina Clade

Hygrocybe conica
Hygrocybe spadicea
Hygrocybe miniata
Hygrocybe cantharellus


Hygrocybe Clade

Cuphophyllus citrinopallidus
Chromosera cyanophylla


Cuphopylloid Clade


Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357400. An online version of this paper is available at:

Cite this page as:

Kuo, M. (2005, March). The hygrophoroid/omphalinoid group. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site:

© MushroomExpert.Com